3) Vasif Nabiyev, Yapay Zeka: Problemler, Yöntemler, Algoritmalar, 2. baskı, s., Seçkin, Ankara, 4) Okyay Kaynak ve M. Önder Efe, “Yapay Sinir Ağları. Yapay Sinir Ağları (Theory, Architecturue, Education, Application). Ankara: Seckin Yayıncılık. Nabiyev, V.V. . Yapay Zeka. Ankara: Seckin Yayıncılık. Pao. [8] V. V. Nabiyev, Yapay Zeka: Problemler, Y¨ontemler, Algoritmalar, Se¸ckin Yayıncılık [9] V. V. Nabiyev, C. Kose, and S. Bayrak, An artificial neural network.


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Norway, Iceland, and the members of the EU along with Liechtenstein are members of a free trade area called the European Economic Area, which allows freedom of movement for goods, services, capital, and people. Two yapay zeka nabiyev treaties revised the policies and institutions of the EU.

European Union

The first, the Treaty of Amsterdam, was signed in and entered into force on May 1, A second treaty, the Treaty of Nice, was signed in and entered into force on February 1, Negotiated in preparation for the admission of new members from eastern Europe, it contained major reforms.

The maximum number of seats on the Commission was set at 27, the number of commissioners appointed yapay zeka nabiyev members was made the same at one each, and the president of the Commission was given greater independence from national governments.

Qualified majority voting in the Council of Ministers was extended to several new areas. Approval of legislation by qualified voting required the support of members representing at least 62 percent of the EU population and either the support of a majority of members or a supermajority of votes cast.

Although national vetoes remained in areas such as taxation and social policy, countries yapay zeka nabiyev to pursue yapay zeka nabiyev integration in limited areas were not precluded from doing so.

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After the end of Cold War, many of the former communist countries of eastern and central Europe applied for EU membership. However, their relative lack of economic yapay zeka nabiyev threatened to hinder their full integration into EU institutions.

To address this problem, the EU considered a stratified system under which subsets of countries would participate in some components of economic integration e. Turkey, at the periphery of Europe, also applied for membership, yapay zeka nabiyev its application was controversial because it was a predominantly Islamic country, because it was widely accused of human rights violations, and because it had historically tense relations with Greece especially over Cyprus.


Despite opposition from those who feared that expansion of the EU would stifle consensus and inhibit yapay zeka nabiyev development of Europe-wide foreign and security policies, the EU in admitted 10 countries Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Sloveniaall but two of which Cyprus and Malta were former communist states; Bulgaria and Romania joined in Building on the limited economic and political goals of the ECSC, the countries of western Europe have achieved an unprecedented level of integration and cooperation.

The degree of legal integration, supranational political authority, and economic integration in the EU greatly surpasses that of other international organizations.

Indeed, although the EU has not replaced the nation-state, its institutions have increasingly resembled a parliamentary democratic political system yapay zeka nabiyev the supranational level.


The drafting process evoked considerable controversy, particularly over the question of whether the constitution should mention God and the Christian yapay zeka nabiyev of much of European society the final version did not. The proposed constitution was signed in but required ratification by all EU members to take effect; voters in Yapay zeka nabiyev and the Netherlands rejected it inthereby scuttling the constitution at least in the short term.

It would have created a full-time president, a European foreign minister, a public prosecutor, and a charter of fundamental rights.


Under the leadership of Germany, work began in early on a reform treaty intended to replace the failed constitution. The resulting Lisbon Treaty, signed yapay zeka nabiyev Decemberrequired approval by all yapay zeka nabiyev EU member countries in order to take effect.

The treaty, which retained portions of the draft constitution, would establish an EU presidency, consolidate foreign policy representation for the EU, and devolve additional powers to the European Commission, the European Court of Justice, and the European Parliament.

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Unlike the draft yapay zeka nabiyev, the Lisbon Treaty would amend rather than replace existing treaties. The treaty failed, at least in the short yapay zeka nabiyev, in June after it was rejected by voters in a national referendum in Ireland. A week after the Irish vote, Poland completed its ratification of the treaty as well.

At that time the treaty remained to be ratified by only one country, the Czech Republic.

Yapay zeka: insan-bilgisayar etkileşimi - Vasif Vasifoğlu Nabiyev - Google книги

Although the Czech Parliament already had approved the treaty, Czech Pres. Having been approved by all 27 member countries, the treaty entered into force on December 1, The Euro-Zone Debt Crisis The sovereign debt crisis that rocked the yapay zeka nabiyev zone beginning in was the biggest challenge yet faced by the members of the EU and, in particular, its administrative structures.

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Borrowing costs soared as government bond yields rose, and the PIIGS countries yapay zeka nabiyev it increasingly difficult to obtain financing. A series of stopgap measures were undertaken by the EU and the International Monetary Fund in an attempt to halt the spread of the crisis, but it soon became apparent that a larger, more-organized response would be required.


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