French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, ; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., After his school-days at a Jesuit college he studied theology at Aix, but in he. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June – 28 December ) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for. Works[edit]. Élémens de botanique, ; Histoire des plantes qui naissent aux environs de Paris, ; Institutiones rei herbariae, editio altera.


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Joseph Pitton de Tournefort - Wikipedia

His teacher at Montpellier, Magnol, had refined the concept of familyalthough no doubt prematurely, for it was not taken up again for more than half a century. Once identified, each genus was to receive a name that would evoke only the characteristic expressed in its description, and the name was joseph pittcon de tournefort be as simple as possible—although tradition should not be completely disregarded.

Above all, Tournefort carefully distinguished the act of describing from that of naming. The distinct paths of taxonomy and nomenclature were now acknowledged.

Linnaeus defined the species and, in a completely natural way, imposed joseph pittcon de tournefort binary nomenclature; Jussieu and Adanson made knowledge of natural units at all levels the aim of their research.

In addition to genera, Tournefort suspected the existence of higher units, which he called classes, but in practice he scarcely treated them as such.

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort | French botanist and physician |

Rather, like the divisions, he used them most often as quite arbitrary means of identifying species. Absorbed in the huge task of making an inventory of the genera in the material at hand, Tournefort did not have time to consider each species in detail.

His deep concern for clarity, simplicity, and rigor in his writings was the source of his attractive style and convincing argumentation. Unfortunately, it also resulted in a certain schematism and, ultimately, led to the superficiality of his method.

The account of this journey, "Relation d'un voyage du Levant" Paris,appeared after his death; his work is a classic and was translated into English and German He collected species of plants during joseph pittcon de tournefort one journey. Tournefort's system of classifying plants is based on the form of the corolla.

Concepts of genus and species had been framed as early as the 16th joseph pittcon de tournefort, and Kaspar Bauhin in particular consistently distinguished genera and species.

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

Augustus Quirinus Rivinus had even advocated the use of binary nomenclature shortly before Tournefort's work was published. His manuscript, composed of his letters to the Minister of the Exterior Count de Pontchartain, was published posthumously in A number of re-editions followed, while his work was also translated into English, German and Joseph pittcon de tournefort.

There is also a Greek joseph pittcon de tournefort of the first part. The fact that Tournefort had discovered new plants in his journey led him to publish a supplement to his main work of botanical classification in Having survived a multitude of adventures, Tournefort died of an accident in He did not live to see the publication of his travel chronicle, which in the following three centuries became the basic manual to all joseph pittcon de tournefort to these regions.


He describes the places he visited in a particular systematic manner. Life Tournefort's research journeys Tournefort was born in Aix-en-Provence and studied at the Jesuit convent there. It was intended that joseph pittcon de tournefort enter the Churchbut the death of his father allowed him to follow his interest in botany.

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